Benodigde kennis

De benodigde kennis wordt in samenwerking bepaald tijdens werkbijeenkomsten en Ronde Tafels. Dit leidt tot kennisvragen die worden beheerd door het Ministerie van Infrastructuur en Milieu (DGB).

De onderstaande vragen zijn al deels beantwoord. De antwoorden staan in de documenten uit de collectie en zijn hier verzameld. (stand per maart 2017) Voor meer vragen en antwoorden: zie het Kennisjaarverslag.

LEGAL-Juridische Aspecten

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Het antwoord hierop moet m.i. niet in het juridische, maar in het technische en het human factors domein gezocht worden.

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Het antwoord hierop moet m.i. niet in het juridische, maar in het technische en het human factors domein gezocht worden.

25%

In (How Governments Can Promote Automated Driving) is een hoofdstuk gewijd aan het vergroten van de maatschappelijke acceptatie. In Amerikaanse staten waar geëxperimenteerd wordt met automatische voertuigen doet de overheid dit actief. In de literatuur wordt het risico dat de burger ervaart, niet genoemd.

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Dit is niet in de literatuur genoemd.

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Uit (Automated Vehicles are probably legal in the United States): “The rules of the road as codified assume human judgment, and the rules of the road as observed reflect that judgment. These dependencies  may  complicate  the  lawful  operation  of  automated  vehicles.”

“These references to reasonableness, prudence, practicability,  and  due  care  demonstrate  that  the  law  accepts  risk  at  a  certain level, they neither specify this level nor prescribe a basis for determining  it. ”

“Application  of  these  laws  to  automated  vehicles  may  present both  design  challenges  and  liability  concerns.”

 

  • Welke strategieën voor regelgeving zijn er en welke hanteren we nu?

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Verschillende dilemma’s worden gepresenteerd in (Automated and Autonomous Driving: Regulation under uncertainty):

  1. Treat automated vehicles specifically or generally?
  2. Let policy lead or lag technology?
  3. Privilege uniformity or flexibility?
  4. Emphasise ex-ante or ex-post regulation?
  • Hoe verbreden we het perspectief van de regelgeving zonder het te groot en te complex te maken? (bv door een of meerdere frameworks adhv use cases, in specifieke deployment situaties).

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Dit is niet in de literatuur genoemd.

 

  • Welke relaties in de bestaande regelgeving zijn relevant voor Automatisch rijden en in welke regelsets, bv: Het voertuig (toelating), Het verkeer (veiligheid, doorstroming), De infrastructuur en het beheer daarvan in de openbare ruimte, de mobiliteit, transport van personen en of goederen, DAta en privicy, datainfrastructuren, (geo)informatiesystemen en informatiemanagement, eurpese regelgeving/harmonisatie

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(Regulation and the Risk of Inaction) benoemt de juridische complexiteit. Gesteld kan worden dat elk van de relaties relevant is.

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De wetenschap erkent de noodzaak tot aanpassing van wetgeving, maar heeft nog geen concrete invulling. Uit (Motoring of the Future);

“The DfT should provide underpinning detail to support the legislative and other changes that it identified in its regulatory review. In doing so, it should articulate what changes it expects in the processes and systems for checking and enforcing compliance, and how it intends to ensure that its motoring agencies have the appropriate skills and knowledge to maintain and update testing and certification regimes. It is important that the certification and testing regimes keep pace with developments in technology. These regimes have been used successfully in the past to encourage the take up of particular technologies and they have a role to play now. The DfT must bear in mind that new technologies are already being deployed in production vehicles and that some of the issues that the evidence to our inquiry and the review have identified, such as clarification of liabilities, are already live issues.”

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Uit (Fundamental and Special Legal Questions for Autonomous Vehicles)

“If the introduction of autonomous driving is taken into account against this backdrop, it may be assumed that the interests would remain unchanged—at least for the mixed traffic scenario of autonomous and driver-controlled vehicles on which this study is based (see Chap.2). A change could occur if—due to a very high degree of automated-system mastery of the automated control risk associated with a violation—the described consideration finds that the violation does not result in an increased risk. This would, of course, call into question the very rationale for the rule itself: “Violation” of the rule would then not actually produce any disadvantage in the context of mixed traffic. It is also conceivable, however, that autonomous driving will lead to a need forconsiderably more detailed traffic rules which are significantly less flexible (which would in turn raise the question of societal acceptance again). Such a restriction of the existing situation would in turn require a more detailed catalog of requirements in terms of the technical control capability of autonomous vehicles as soon as they become foreseeable from a technical standpoint. This would make it possible to identify consequences, including in the case of violations, in much greater detail than is currently possible.”

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(Zelfrijdende auto’s en het Verdrag van Wenen inzake het wegverkeer Een verkennende analyse) en (Automated Vehicles are probably legal in the United States)

Huidige verdragen stellen dat een persoon altijd de controle moet hebben, wat in tegenspraak is met automatisch rijden. Creatieve interpretatie is mogelijk, maar druist in tegen rechtsprincipes.

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Juridische transitie is niet besproken. Voorbeelden duiden op toepassing van ontheffingen voor onderzoek, maar niet voor consumenten.

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(Fundamental and Special Legal Questions for Autonomous Vehicles), (Automated and Autonomous Driving: Regulation under uncertainty), (German Federal Highway Research InstituteVehicle Automation: Definitions, legal aspects, research needs)

Het vraagstuk is door de wetenschap geïdentificeerd, maar (nog) niet beantwoord.

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(Zelfrijdende auto’s en het Verdrag van Wenen inzake het wegverkeer Een verkennende analyse) en (Automated Vehicles are probably legal in the United States)

Nationale wetgeving moet internationale verdragen volgen. De interpretatie daarvan heeft invloed op de implicaties.


Hieronder een lijst met een aantal documenten die enkel betrekking hebben op het subdomein Legal/Juridische Aspecten. Er zijn nog meer documenten gerelateerd aan dit subdomein maar deze zijn ook gelinkt aan andere subdomeinen. De volledige collectie beschikbare documenten in onze online bibliotheek (catalogus en dropbox) 

 

Titel/Title Auteur(s)/Author(s) Organisatie(s)-opstellers/Product of Organisatie(s)-opdrachtgever(s)/ Product requested by Publicatiedatum
Autonomous Vehicles and Autonomous Driving in Freight Transport Heike Flämig Technische Universität Hamburg-Harburg TUHH, Institute for Transport Springer Berlin Heidelberg 22-5-2016
Autonomous Mobility-on-Demand Systems for Future Urban Mobility Marco Pavone Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Stanford University Springer Berlin Heidelberg 22-5-2016
The Dynamic Window Approach to Collision Avoidance Dieter Fox, Wolfram Burgard, Sebastian Thrun University of Bonn, Carnegie Mellon University of Bonn, Carnegie Mellon 6-8-2002
Proxy Prudence: Rethinking Models of Responsibility for Semi-autonomous Robots Jason Millar Queens University, Ontario Queens University, Ontario 12-3-2014
Human Factors Evaluation of Level 2 And Level 3 Automated Driving Concepts. Past Research, State of Automation Technology, and Emerging System Concepts Tammy E. Trimble, Richard Bishop, Justin F. Morgan, & Myra Blanco Virginia Tech Transportation Institute United States National Highway and Traffic Safety Agency ??/07/2014
Comprehensive Experimental Analyses of Automotive Attack Surfaces Stephen Checkoway, Damon McCoy, Brian Kantor, Danny Anderson, Hovav Shacham, and Stefan Savage; Karl Koscher, Alexei Czeskis, Franziska Roesner, and Tadayoshi Kohno Univeristy of California, San Diego; University of Washington Univeristy of California, San Diego; University of Washington 8-8-2011
Automated and Autonomous Driving: Regulation under uncertainty Dr Bryant Walker Smith, Joakim Svensson International Transport Forum at OECD International Transport Forum’s Corporate Partnership Board (CPB) 5-7-2015
The Release of Autonomous Vehicles Walther Wachenfeld, Hermann Winner Institute of Automotive Engineering, Technische Universität Darmstadt Springer Berlin Heidelberg 22-5-2016
Do Autonomous Vehicles Learn? Walther Wachenfeld, Hermann Winner Institute of Automotive Engineering, Technische Universität Darmstadt Springer Berlin Heidelberg 22-5-2016
Opportunities and Risks Associated with Collecting and Making Usable Additional Data Kai Rannenberg Deutsche Telekom Chair of Mobile Business and Multilateral Security, Goethe Universität Frankfurt Springer Berlin Heidelberg 22-5-2016
Preparing a Nation for Autonomous Vehicles: Opportunities, Barriers and Policy Recommendations Daniel J. Fagnant, Kara Kockelman Eno Center for Transportation Eno Center for Transportation ??/10/2013
Self-Driving Cars: Are We Ready? Gary Silberg KPMG LLP KPMG LLP ??/10/2013
Impact of Autonomous Vehicles on Urban Mobility Mohammed Azmat WU Vienna University of Economics and Business WU Vienna University of Economics and Business 29-7-2015
Self-Driving Cars: Disruptive or Incremental? Tao Jiang, Srdjan Petrovic, Uma Ayyer, Anand Tolani, Sajid Husain Sutardja Center for Entrepreneurship & Technology University of California, Berkeley Technology University of California 1-6-2015
The Road Ahead: The Emerging Policy Debates for IT in Vehicles Daniel Castro Information Technology & Innovation Foundation Information Technology & Innovation Foundation ??/04/2013
Towards a theory of situation awareness in dynamic systems. Mica Endsley Texas Tech University Texas Tech University ??/03/2015
Multiple Resources and Mental Workload Wickens, C University of Illinois at Urbana University of Illinois at Urbana ??/06/2008
A Proposed Psychological Model of Driving Automation Stanton, Young Brunel University Brunel University ??/01/2000
The experimental setup of a large field operational test for cooperative driving vehicles at the A270. Van den Broek, T., Netten, B., Hoedemaeker, M., Ploeg, J. IEEE TU Eindhoven 19-9-2010
Risk homeaostasis theory: an overview Gerald Wilde Univeristy of Queens, Ontario Univeristy of Queens, Ontario ??/06/1998
Behavioural adaptation, risk compensation, risk homeostasis and moral hazard in traffic safety Vrolix, K Universiteit Hasselt Steunpunt Verkeersveiligheid ??/09/2006
Modelling driver behaviour: a rationale for multivariate statistics J. C. de Winter, Riender Happee TU Delft, faculteit 3ME TU Delft, faculteit 3ME 6-12-2010
Misconceptions and self-reported behavioral adaptations associated with advanced in-vehicle systems: lessons learned from early adopters. Robert Llaneras Virginia Tech Transportation Institute United States Department of Transportation, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) u ??/??/2007
Effects of adaptive cruise control and highly automated driving on workload and situation awareness: A review of the empirical evidence. Joost C.F. de Winter, Riender Happee, Marieke H. Martens, Neville A. Stanton TU Delft, University of Twente, TNO, University of Southampton TU Delft, University of Twente, TNO, University of Southampton ??/??/2014
Autonomous Driving: Disruptive innovation that promises to change the automotive industry as we know it Bernhart, Winterhoff, Hoyes Roland Berger Roland Berger ??/11/2014
Behavioural impacts of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems–an overview Karel A. Brookhuis , Dick de Waard and Wiel H. Janssen University of Groningen TNO ??/11/2001
Heeft de zelfrijdende auto een geweten nodig?  Anne van der Veen De Correspondent 2-9-2016
Legal Aspects of Autonomous Driving Sven Beiker Santa Clara University Center for Automotive Research at Stanford (CARS), Stanford University. 12-12-2012