Benodigde kennis

De benodigde kennis wordt in samenwerking bepaald tijdens werkbijeenkomsten en Ronde Tafels. Dit leidt tot kennisvragen die worden beheerd door het Ministerie van Infrastructuur en Milieu (DGB).

De onderstaande vragen zijn al deels beantwoord. De antwoorden staan in de documenten uit de collectie en zijn hier verzameld. (stand per maart 2017) Voor meer vragen en antwoorden: zie het Kennisjaarverslag.

HUMAN BEHAVIOUR-Human Machine Interaction

50% Transition of control in highly automated vehicles A literature review R-2015-22

According to Flemisch et al. (2012), there are four factors that define the relationship between drivers and highly automated vehicles where the automated systems primarily perform the driving task and the driver performs the driving task occasionally. These factors are: ability, authority, control and responsibility.

Factoren die relevant kunnen zijn voor de interactie.

  • Interactie have en have-not’s? Vaste set van indicatoren om rijgedrag te monitoren?

 

100% Effects of adaptive cruise control and highly automated driving on workload and situation awareness: A review of the empirical evidence.

 

Many Human Factors researchers would probably agree that workload and situation awareness are two of the most important Human Factors constructs that are predictive of performance and safety (McCauley & Miller, 1997;Parasuraman, Sheridan, & Wickens, 2008;Sarter & Woods, 1991; Stanton & Young, 2000). Accordingly, the aim of this study is to quantify the effects of ACC and

HAD on workload and situation awareness.

 

Een aantal indicatoren om rijgedrag te monitoren, terwijl er met een zelfrijdende auto gereden wordt.

 

100% Rijtaakindicatoren voor C-ITS-projecten

 

Indicatoren ten behoeve van de doorstroming

Snelheid (puntsnelheid, gemiddelde snelheid, continue snelheid)

Afstand tot de voorligger

Rijstrookkeuze en aantal wisselingen

Acceleratie (met name bij oplossen file)

Aantal voertuigen op de weg (situationele variabele)

Longitudinale positie

Laterale positie

Gebruik signalering van auto, bv richtingaanwijzer

Remgedrag

 

Rijtaakindicatoren verkeersveiligheid

Snelheid (puntsnelheid en gemiddelde snelheid)

Snelheid naderen kruispunt en voorliggers

Aantal overschrijdingen maximum snelheid

Acceleratie/Deceleratie

Afstand tot voorligger (TTC)

Tijdsduur binnen bepaalde TTC

Remkracht

Aantal keren dat bovengemiddeld geremd wordt

Aantal rijstrookwisselingen

100% AUTOMATED DRIVING FUNCTIONS GIVING CONTROL BACK TO THE DRIVER

At a certain distance upstream from the exit, the participant was warned and requested to provide a confirmation by pushing a button on the touch screen of the interface (Figure 2). If the driver did not confirm within a certain time the warning and confirmation request was repeated. Closer to the exit, irrespective of the driver reacting to the confirmation request, a warning was displayed that provided the amount of meters till the exit (Figure 1 without the confirmation request and button). The timings of the warnings and feedback requests were different between the attentive and inattentive driver states (see Table 1). The unadapted transition strategy was to warn the participant and ask for confirmation the first time at 1000 m before the exit. From 500 m before the exit the participant was continously informed on the distance (‘count down’) till the VTB system would switch off. In the adapted strategy, Willemsen 5 the participant was warned and asked for confirmation earlier, at 2000 m before the exit and the ‘count down’ was shown from 1000 m before the exit. In both strategies, if the participant did not react to the first confirmation request, a second one was issued at 750 m before the exit.

100%  The experimental setup of a large field operational test for cooperative driving vehicles at the A270.

To be able to choose a suitable way of communicating with the driver through a HMI in the A270 experiments, several HMI alternatives are tested by means of a driving simulator.

The chosen HMI design consists of a triangle which fills up with red when (more) deceleration is needed or a circle which fills up with green when (more) acceleration is needed, see left and right plot of Figure 3, respectively. The color signs are only shown when needed. As soon as no acceleration or deceleration is requested from the driver, i.e. a constant speed must be kept, the display is either a gray triangle or gray circle. When acceleration or deceleration gets more urgent an acoustic signal is added to the visual display saying “speed up” or “slow down”, respectively. The reason behind the sound is that more attention is attracted to the needed action from the driver and it gives the driver an extra motivation to follow up the advice.

Ook hier is een geëxperimenteerd met mogelijke manieren om de bestuurder weer in de loop te krijgen.

 

100% Effects of adaptive cruise control and highly automated driving on workload and situation awareness: A review of the empirical evidence.

In a study by Brook-Carter et al. (2002), a red rectangle appeared on the simulator screen and the participant had to respond as quickly as possible by pressing the horn.

In a driving simulator study by Ma (2006), participants were requested to press a button on the steering wheel when the navigation aid was activated, which occurred after about 9 min of driving.

De Winter et al. (2014) found that drivers responded faster to arrow-shaped stimuli projected on the simulator screen during HAD as compared to manual driving

 

Hier worden verschillende manieren toegepast.

80% AUTOMATED DRIVING FUNCTIONS GIVING CONTROL BACK TO THE DRIVER

Heeft hier onderzoek gedaan, maar met klein aantal participanten (16) and in een simulator. Verder onderzoek is nodig met meer mensen en met echte voertuigen.

Objective Results

The effect of the additional task is evaluated through the reaction time of the drivers on the confirmation request,and the steering behaviour after regaining control and taking the exit. This is shown in Figure 6.

Figure 6.  zijn de grafieken met tijden, kan deze hier niet weergegeven, zie document.

 

100% Transition of control in highly automated vehicles A literature review R-2015-22

Measures for vehicle control were the standard deviation of the lateral position (SDLP) and the frequency of steering adjustments. There were two conditions: (1) moments when a switch to manual driving was required while drivers were attentively scanning the forward roadway while the vehicle was in fully automated mode, and (2) at moments the eyetracking equipment indicated that drivers were not attentively scanning the forward roadway while the vehicle was in the fully automated mode. When drivers were attentive, switching to manual and regaining proper control over the vehicle took on average 10 s. When drivers were less attentive when driving in the fully automated mode, switching to manual and regaining full control over the vehicle took circa 35-40 s. These results imply that especially when drivers are not attentive, messages about a switch tomanual must be provided properly and timely. These results also indicate that planned switches to manual driving have to occur in traffic situationswhere crash risk is low.

 

Ook dit komt uit enkel onderzoek, geeft wel een precieze tijd, dus antwoord op de vraag. Geeft andere resultaten dan het artikel hierboven. Wel is dit onderzoek accurater.

5/10% AUVSI-TRB-Symposium2015-Presentaties-Human-Factors

 

S.Hill presentatie geeft resultaten van een onderzoek naar tijd van out-of-loop naar in-to-loop

  1. Green presentatie geeft een formula om de tijd van controle overname te berekenen

K,Lee presentatie geeft ook resultaten van een onderzoek naar de tijd van controle overname

De overige presentaties geven geen antwoord op een van de vragen.

 

100% Effects of adaptive cruise control and highly automated driving on workload and situation awareness: A review of the empirical evidence.

Verschillende experimenten uitgevoerd, waarin verschillende tijden naar voren zijn gekomen. De antwoorden staan verdeeld over grote stukken tekst in het artikel, het antwoord is meerdere pagina’s lang.


Hieronder een lijst met een aantal documenten die enkel betrekking hebben op het subdomein. Er zijn nog meer documenten gerelateerd aan dit subdomein maar deze zijn ook gelinkt aan andere subdomeinen. De volledige collectie beschikbare documenten in onze online bibliotheek (catalogus en dropbox) 

Titel/Title Auteur(s)/Author(s) Product van/Produced by Opdrachtgever product/Product Requested by Publicatiedatum/ Publication date
Transition of control in highly automated vehicles A literature review R-2015-22 Dr Willem Vlakveld, Dr Nicole van Nes SWOV IenM-projectgroep zelfrijdende voertuigen 12-5-2015
HUMAN FACTORS EVALUATION OF LEVEL 2 AND LEVEL 3 AUTOMATED DRIVING CONCEPTS Paul, Rau. Myra, Blanco etc. Virginia Tech Transportation Institute United States National Highway Traffic Safety Administration United States 6-10-2015
Human Factors Evaluation of Level 2 And Level 3 Automated Driving Concepts. Past Research, State of Automation Technology, and Emerging System Concepts Tammy E. Trimble, Richard Bishop, Justin F. Morgan, & Myra Blanco Virginia Tech Transportation Institute United States National Highway and Traffic Safety Agency ??/07/2014
Multiple Resources and Mental Workload Wickens, C University of Illinois at Urbana University of Illinois at Urbana ??/06/2008
The experimental setup of a large field operational test for cooperative driving vehicles at the A270. Van den Broek, T., Netten, B., Hoedemaeker, M., Ploeg, J. IEEE TU Eindhoven 19/09/2010
#WAARDE! Joost C.F. de Winter, Riender Happee, Marieke H. Martens, Neville A. Stanton TU Delft, University of Twente, TNO, University of Southampton TU Delft, University of Twente, TNO, University of Southampton ??/??/2014
Intelligent Cruise Control Field Operational Test P. Fancher, R. Ervin, J. Sayer, M. Hagan, S. Bogard, Z. Bareket, M. Mefford, J. Haugen NHTSA NHTSA ??/03/1998