Benodigde kennis

De benodigde kennis wordt in samenwerking bepaald tijdens werkbijeenkomsten en Ronde Tafels. Dit leidt tot kennisvragen die worden beheerd door het Ministerie van Infrastructuur en Milieu (DGB).

De onderstaande vragen zijn al deels beantwoord. De antwoorden staan in de documenten uit de collectie en zijn hier verzameld. (stand per maart 2017) Voor meer vragen en antwoorden: zie het Kennisjaarverslag.

HUMAN BEHAVIOUR-Acceptatie

Brand equity has been found to be positively related to customer loyalty and willingness to pay. While strong brands are generally helpful for the marketing of products and services, the importance of brands has been found to vary across industry sectors, with a high relevance for the marketing of automobiles [22]. The relevance of branding strongly depends on the function of the brand as risk reducing factor, its function to enhance information efficiency, and its symbolic value. Since the purchase of a new car is an extensive decision involving comparably high expenditures and the collection of extensive information, strong brands can promote the purchasing process.

Besides the sparse empirical evidence for the risk-reducing effects of strong brands in the context of automated driving [13], the aforementioned brand functions should be positively related to consumer acceptance of automated driving systems. Knowledge and experience of consumers with automated driving technology is marginal. In combination with additional cost for automated driving abilities, consumers are likely to evaluate a purchase decision as risky. Strong brands can effectively help to reduce perceptions of risk. “
Gevonden in (p.691): Consumer Perceptions of Automated Driving Technologies: An Examination of Use Cases and Branding Strategies

“While consumers still have many questions about safety, liability and the operation of self-driving cars, their receptivity increased significantly when presented with the right value proposition, which can be summed up as follows: shorter commute times + reduced traffic-related variability + the ability to use the vehicle in either self-driving or human- operated mode (self-driving on/off) = a strong incentive for consumer adoption.

Companies that get the value proposition right – and deliver a mobility/driving experience that is esthetically and emotionally pleasing could dominate the market. Companies that miss the mark on either the technology or the mobility experience could find themselves left behind. “

Gevonden in (p.4): Self-Driving Cars: Are We Ready?

30% Societal Risk Constellations for Autonomous Driving. Analysis, Historical Context and Assessment

Geeft niet daadwerkelijk antwoord op de vraag. Wel wordt genoemd op welke gebieden actie ondernomen moet worden

Significant problems with data protection and privacy are to be expected if autonomous driving takes place within networked systems (although autonomous driving does not pose specific issues in this regard compared to other fields). Technical and legal measures (Chap. 24) should be introduced here to take account of the wide-ranging public debate on these issues (e.g. NSA, indiscriminate data collection).

 

30% Ethics and selfdriving cars

Niet zozeer maatregelen, maar mogelijke gebeurtenissen die kunnen plaatsvinden op gebied van sociale veiligheid door de ZRA.

From a technical point of view, many of the valuable goals listed and discussed so far: safety, accountability, accessibility may be achieved by a huge acquisition, storage and elaboration of data. Both partial automation and supervised automation systems may need to acquire a huge amount of data about the behaviour of the vehicles and their drivers or passengers via sensing and communication technologies. Moreover, by being equipped with sensors and cameras, the vehicles are also likely to incidentally acquire many data on other road users interacting with them.

Two ethical and societal risks highlighted in the ethical literature on privacy and data protection (e.g. van Den Hoven 2008) are clearly present also in the case of ADS. Firstly, ADS may be the target of cyber attacks or hacking. Secondly, the massive acquisition and storage of personal data about road users may threaten their moral autonomy in two ways: a) by creating an information asymmetry: a huge quantity of information about individual persons may become available to those who own or control transport infrastructures. This information may be used to benefit citizens, but there is also a risk that it will be collected and used against the interests of minorities or even the majority of people and in violation of their rights; b) by creating an imbalance of power: similarly, a dramatic increase in the information capabilities of governments or other agencies may enhance their capacity to promote the citizen’s safety and well-being, but this capacity may also be used to control, coerce, exploit, discriminate and even oppress people.

30% Ethics and selfdriving cars

Niet concreet een keuze, maar mogelijkheden voor de keuze van verantwoordelijkheid.

Road traffic also raises important issues of tort liability: who should pay for the costs of the accident. From a legal perspective the introduction of ADS presents at least three new issues (Pagallo 2013: 110): first, the law has so far seen robots and autonomous systems merely as tools and not as agents and doesn’t seem equipped to cope with the presence of non-human intelligent systems (see also Calo 2016); secondly and relatedly, when systems equipped with complex artificial intelligence are used the driver/owner may not always be responsible for the behaviour of the system: sometimes others should, other times nobody may, for instance in the event of a malfunctioning that no reasonable person could have predicted; in this respect things can be even more complex in the case of a shared vehicle, where owner and user do not coincide (see section below on ownership); third, unlike what happens for instance with robo-traders, liability for road accidents concern also “extra-contractual” third parties, that is parties not bound by any contractual relationship with the owner/driver (a typical example here would be an unknown pedestrian).

100% Behavioural impacts of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems–an overview

Belangrijke factoren

There are a number of reasons why in recent years electronic driving aids are developed and implemented at an increasing rate and speed. The first and foremost reason is safety (i.e. the unacceptable number of accidents), but also economic principles (time is money, among others) are a compelling drive, while bringing comfort to the driver population is obviously a good sales argument. Last but not least, environmental arguments play a role of growing importance.

Consumer acceptance is dependent upon such requirements as system safety, validity (does the system function correctly) and benefit (is there a positive cost-benefit balance). Finally, environmental issues are not decisive in this area yet, but will gain weight in the future.

100% Societal and Individual Acceptance of Autonomous Driving

Bladzijde 631 geeft een tabel met object-gerelateerde factoren die gebruikt zijn in Duitsland, VS en Heise online. Hierin wordt de ‘statement distribution’ in de landen weergegeven. Bladzijde 634 geeft zo’n zelfde tabel, maar dan met affectieve-subjectieve factoren.

70% Public Perceptions of Driverless cars

Op bladzijde 5 staat het verschil in acceptatie boven en onder de 40 jaar weergegeven. Dit is niet erg specifiek, maar er is daadwerkelijk wel een verschil te zien.

70% Taking a Drive, Hitching a Ride: Autonomous Driving and Car Usage

Tabel op bladzijde 675 geeft meningen van de respondenten weer. Percentages worden weergeven bij bepaalde onderwerpen gerelateerd aan de autonome auto. Hieruit is te halen in hoeverre mensen het eens zijn met deze onderwerpen

50% The Interaction Between Humans and Autonomous Agents

Een paar onderwerpen genoemd waar de acceptatie afhankelijk van is.

Transparent interfaces adapted to the mental system of the human are the prerequisite for the necessary situation and system awareness in interactions with the automated system. On the other hand, the technical system must also be able to correctly interpret the mental state of the driver, her intentions and behavior and dynamically represent them in a driver model.

70% Taking a Drive, Hitching a Ride: Autonomous Driving and Car Usage

Volgens dit artikel zit er daadwerkelijk verschil tussen verschillende mate van automatisering.

Overall the survey clearly demonstrates that Vehicle on Demand is the subject of the
greatest number of negative and fewest positive assessments. Of the 250 respondents allocated to this use case, 54 % could not imagine replacing their currently preferred mode of transport with a Vehicle on Demand. In direct comparison with Full Automation Using Driver for Extended Availability, Vehicle on Demand is described with rather negative statements, with a quarter of all descriptions even viewing it as scary, dangerous, weird, or terrible. Clearly, this means that fewer respondents could imagine using a Vehicle on Demand than one they can still drive themselves, as is shown by the number of statements professing “no idea.”

70% Societal Risk Constellations for Autonomous Driving. Analysis, Historical Context and Assessment

Onderzoek gedaan in Duitsland. Factoren die belangrijk zijn voor de acceptatie van de zelfrijdende auto.

– Registration criteria for autonomous vehicles must be defined by the responsible
authorities; with regard to safety standards, both fundamental ethical questions (how
safe is safe enough?) and political aspects (e.g. distributive justice, data protection)
must be taken into account and handled on the legislative/regulatory level as
appropriate.
– Key will be the legal regulation of dealing with the possible and small-scale accidents
in autonomous driving, and in particular adjustment processes. Product liability in
particular will have to be resolved (Chaps. 25 and 26).
– Adaptation or expansion of the current traffic laws would have to be considered in this context.

-Crucial for risk management are safety measures to ensure both that autonomously
guided vehicles can safely stop in critical situations and that they provide passive
protection for occupants in the event of an accident.

-Significant problems with data protection and privacy are to be expected if autonomous driving takes place within networked systems (although autonomous driving does not pose specific issues in this regard compared to other fields). Technical and legal measures (Chap. 24) should be introduced here to take account of the wide-ranging public debate on these issues (e.g. NSA, indiscriminate data collection).

 

70% Behavioural impacts of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems–an overview

Factoren die invloed zullen hebben op de acceptatie
Acceptability of ADAS is highly dependent upon solid demonstration of these features. Acceptability is also found to be dependent of the form in which ADAS applications are implemented. For the end-user the benefits should be clear and preferably directly noticeable. For this reason comfort enhancing features stand a
better change than safety enhancement properties. Most drivers consider themselves at least better drivers with respect to safe behaviour than average. Strict requirements for ADAS applications by all stakeholders are safe (and valid) operation and reliability, false alarms are not acceptable for end-users particularly.

80% Public Perceptions of Driverless cars

Op bladzijde 9 worden 4 manieren genoemd waarop de acceptatie versneld kan worden. Mensen zijn het meest overtuigd als ze een autonome auto in levende lijve zien rijden. Bladzijde 10 geeft mogelijke voordelen van de autonome auto en in hoeverre de respondenten het daar mee eens zijn.

Matthews and Desmond (1996) have found that driver stress is an important factor in the drivers like, or dislike, of driving and is linked to the their experience of mental workload.

 

30% Intelligent Cruise Control Field Operational Test
In examining the results, the researchers observe that the role played by the driver as the supervisor of ACC entails subtle issues whose long-term safety and traffic impacts are unknown. These issues pertain to the shared control nature of ACC driving requiring a fine match to the perceptual and cognitive behavior of drivers in a safety-central task that affects others driving nearby. Thus, while offering great promise for improving the quality of the driving experience, ACC implies an inherent necessity for human-centered design.

100% Public Perceptions of Driverless cars

Bladzijde 8 geeft weer in hoeverre de respondenten bang zijn voor bepaalde gebeurtenissen die kunnen gebeuren. Hier kunnen barrières uit op gemaakt worden.

30% Societal Risk Constellations for Autonomous Driving. Analysis, Historical Context and Assessment

 

Wel gedeeld autonoom vervoer, maar toch worden limitaties genoemd. Geen argumenten genoemd voor gedeeld autonoom vervoer
One can theoretically avoid these risks by not taking part in road traffic—but that would be associated with significant limitations. Thus dealing with the risks of autonomous driving is a complex question of negotiation and regulation (Chaps. 4 and 25), in which not only the market, i.e. buying behavior, is decisive, but in which questions of the common welfare such as the potential endangerment of others and their protection must also be considered. This will require democratic and legally established procedures (registration procedures, authorities, checks, traffic regulations, product liability, etc.).


Hieronder een lijst met een aantal documenten die enkel betrekking hebben op het subdomein. Er zijn nog meer documenten gerelateerd aan dit subdomein maar deze zijn ook gelinkt aan andere subdomeinen. De volledige collectie beschikbare documenten in onze online bibliotheek (catalogus en dropbox) 

Titel/Title Auteur(s)/Author(s) Product van/Produced by Opdrachtgever product/Product Requested by Publicatiedatum/ Publication date
Human factors in de luchtvaart : lessons learned voor de zelfrijdende auto A.J.C. de Reus, M.R. Vermaat, H. van Dijk Nederlands Lucht‐ en Ruimtevaartcentrum (NLR) IenM-projectgroep zelfrijdende voertuigen 7-1-2016
Why Ethics Matters for Autonomous Cars Patrick Lin California Polytechnic State University California Polytechnic State University 22/5/2016
The Interaction Between Humans and Autonomous Agents Ingo Wolf Freie Universität Berlin Springer Berlin Heidelberg 22/05/2016
Communication and Communication Problems Between Autonomous Vehicles and Human Drivers Berthold Färber Bundeswehr Universität München Springer Berlin Heidelberg 22/05/2016
Behavioural impacts of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems–an overview Karel A. Brookhuis , Dick de Waard and Wiel H. Janssen University of Groningen TNO ??/11/2001
Heeft de zelfrijdende auto een geweten nodig?  Anne van der Veen De Correspondent 02-09-2016
Societal and Individual Acceptance of Autonomous Driving Eva Fraedrich, Barbara Lenz Geography Department, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin Springer Berlin Heidelberg 22/05/2016
Societal Risk Constellations for Autonomous Driving. Analysis, Historical Context and Assessment Armin Grunwald Institute for Technology Assessment and Systems Analysis (ITAS), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology Springer Berlin Heidelberg 22/05/2016
Taking a Drive, Hitching a Ride: Autonomous Driving and Car Usage Eva Fraedrich, Barbara Lenz Geography Department, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin Springer Berlin Heidelberg 22/05/2016
Consumer Perceptions of Automated Driving Technologies: An Examination of Use Cases and Branding Strategies David M. Woisetschläger Institute of Automotive Management and Industrial Production, Technische Universität Braunschweig Springer Berlin Heidelberg 22/05/2016
Ethics and selfdriving cars Filippo Santoni de Sio Department Values, Technology and Innovation, section Philosophy/Ethics of Technology, Delft University of Technology. IenM-projectgroep zelfrijdende voertuigen 20/09/2016
Public Perceptions of Driverless cars Bloomberg Government Bloomberg Government StateFarm 15/11/2016