The knowledge required is determined by the smart mobility community (organised by Connekt and hosting, government, knowledge institutes and private companies). This process has generated a list of knowledge questions that is being updates regularly because of pilots, research and further discussions facilitated by the Ministerie van Infrastructuur en Milieu (DGB).
The questions that you find below have been partially answered. You will find these answers in the documents mentioned below the questions and answer section (and in the answers using hyperlinks). For further analysis of knowledge required and available please take a look at the anual knowledge report: het Kennisjaarverslag.
“Brand equity has been found to be positively related to customer loyalty and willingness to pay. While strong brands are generally helpful for the marketing of products and services, the importance of brands has been found to vary across industry sectors, with a high relevance for the marketing of automobiles . The relevance of branding strongly depends on the function of the brand as risk reducing factor, its function to enhance information efficiency, and its symbolic value. Since the purchase of a new car is an extensive decision involving comparably high expenditures and the collection of extensive information, strong brands can promote the purchasing process.nnBesides the sparse empirical evidence for the risk-reducing effects of strong brands in the context of automated driving , the aforementioned brand functions should be positively related to consumer acceptance of automated driving systems. Knowledge and experience of consumers with automated driving technology is marginal. In combination with additional cost for automated driving abilities, consumers are likely to evaluate a purchase decision as risky. Strong brands can effectively help to reduce perceptions of risk. “nFound on (p.691): Consumer Perceptions of Automated Driving Technologies: An Examination of Use Cases and Branding Strategies nn“While consumers still have many questions about safety, liability and the operation of self-driving cars, their receptivity increased significantly when presented with the right value proposition, which can be summed up as follows: shorter commute times + reduced traffic-related variability + the ability to use the vehicle in either self-driving or human- operated mode (self-driving on/off) = a strong incentive for consumer adoption.nnCompanies that get the value proposition right – and deliver a mobility/driving experience that is esthetically and emotionally pleasing could dominate the market. Companies that miss the mark on either the technology or the mobility experience could find themselves left behind. “nnFound on (p.4): Self-Driving Cars: Are We Ready?
What is the social impact in a broader context? (social inclusion, economic, spatial, environment, PT-active nodes)
“According to (Anderson, et al. 2014) Self-propelled vehicles could considerably upsurge access and movement across a variety of populations presently incapable or not permitted to use conventional automobile. These include the incapacitated, older people, and children of age 16 or less. The most promising advantages would be personal independence, increased sociability, and access to vital services. Level 4 automation is expected to provide mobility and access at reduced cost when compared to the current system which provides mobility services for disabled for 14 to 18 percent of their budgets in the U.S. “nnFound on (p.42): Impact of Autonomous Vehicles on Urban Mobilitynn“This type of combined and improved transport systems come with many advantages like they would reduce the necessity for roads and parking; lessen congestion, air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions; would support the optimization of capitals used for transportation; and upsurge the living standards in the region. “nnFound on (p.39): Impact of Autonomous Vehicles on Urban Mobility nn“Considering that off-street parking represents 50 000 spots in the baseline case and that the most parking- intensive scenario (car sharing without public transport) would require 25 621 spots, on-street parking spots could be totally removed from the streets, whatever the scenario considered. This would allow the reallocation of 1 530 000 m2 to other public uses2, equivalent to almost 20% of the kerb-to-kerb street area in Lisbon or 210 football fields. This freed-up space could be dedicated to non-motorised transport modes, delivery bays, parklets or other recreational and commercial uses. “nnFound on (p.26): Urban Mobility Upgrade
Should the implementation of AV’s on public roads be done gradually or more integral by regulation?
“Governments can anticipate—and possibly even accelerate—this watershed by taking some or all of the actions described in this Article. These strategies, which were identified through extensive discussions with developers and regulators of automated driving systems as well as other emerging technologies, are roughly organized into three overlapping categories: n
- Administrative strategies include preparing government agencies, preparing public infrastructure, leveraging procurement, and advocating for safety mandates.
- Legal strategies entail carefully analyzing and, as necessary, clarifying existing law as it applies to automated driving; many of these strategies would also internalize more of the costs of conventional driving in a way that could properly incentivize automated driving.
- Community strategies involve identifying specific local needs, opportunities, and resources that may be relevant to automated driving; communities can already start developing proposals in anticipation of public and private grants that may soon be announced. “
nFound on (p.3):How Governments Can Promote Automated Drivingnn
“One central aspect of human-machine interaction is the perceived autonomy of the consumer [4, 29]. While the role of consumer autonomy has been addressed directly or indirectly by some studies, its criticality for consumer acceptance of automated technologies might not be fully captured in the contexts studied. Restricting or removing the autonomy of individuals could cause reactance, i.e., negative psychological and contrary behavioral responses of consumers as reactions to a perceived restriction of their personal freedoms [6, 44]. Automated driving systems could be perceived as a threat to drivers’ autonomy, and reactance could arise in terms of consumer boycott intentions or low adoption rates. Presently, it it is unclear if consumers are willing to accept a loss in control .”nnFound on (p.690): Consumer Perceptions of Automated Driving Technologies: An Examination of Use Cases and Branding Strategiesnn
What is the impact of AV’s on traffic streams? (e.g. local distribution of goods, supply to busses on major transport routes)
Could this be applied at events/amusement parks? Will travelling with a self-driving vehicle from a pick-up point be part of a ‘day out’?
“Another deployment scenario for automated driving involves implementing transportation paradigms that provide slow-moving passenger vehicles, for example in urban areas. Consumers could summon such vehicles using a smartphone app and ride them over relatively short distances (see the use case “vehicle on demand”). nnIn particular, companies from unrelated sectors can use image processing, object recognition, and route planning systems—which are already in widespread modular use—to implement transportation models with higher-order automation within a limited geographical range. The arrangements often proposed for market introduction are slow-moving and limited-area vehicles intended to serve what is known as the “first or last mile,” complementary to private automobiles or public transportation. To name one concrete example, these types of solutions could be used to reach bus and urban rail networks in areas where a regular schedule is not feasible due to inadequate infrastructure or financial limitations. nnDue to the generally rather favorable conditions, it is anticipated that various individual city governments and operators of amusement parks, shopping malls, and other large-scale facilities will introduce automated transportation systems in the short term.”nnFound on (p.199-200): https://www.dropbox.com/s/91n2z7i19wfgzu6/Beiker%2C%20S.%20%282016%29%20Deployment%20Scenarios%20for%20Vehicles%20with%20Higher-Order%20Automation.pdf?dl=0
Shared autonomous transit, but there are limitations. Does not contain arguments pro shared autonomous vehicles.
One can theoretically avoid these risks by not taking part in road traffic—but that would be associated with significant limitations. Thus dealing with the risks of autonomous driving is a complex question of negotiation and regulation (Chaps. 4 and 25), in which not only the market, i.e. buying behavior, is decisive, but in which questions of the common welfare such as the potential endangerment of others and their protection must also be considered. This will require democratic and legally established procedures (registration procedures, authorities, checks, traffic regulations, product liability, etc.).