Welcome to the Knowledge Agenda on Automatic Driving, an initiative of the Ministry of Infrastructure and Water Management, Department of Transport and the RDW-Vehicle-approval, to provide an online overview of available and required knowledge in the field of automatic driving.
The overview is divided into a number of knowledge domains to map the various facets. In the library you will find an extensive collection of reports, papers and presentations, including summaries and background information. The library is used worldwide. The last report on Ethics was requested 674 times in a short time! About 30 pieces are downloaded every day.
The collection of knowledge documents is managed in Dropbox. With Dropbox you can search directly in the folders with documents and full text. Contact email@example.com to gain access to the Dropbox.
Since 2015 we keep a list of knowledge questions (the required knowledge). Our collection of documents provides an answer to these knowledge questions. New questions are coming up because we are getting further and further into the implementation of “Connected Automated Driving”. The set of knowledge questions includes the topics automated driving and Smart Mobility (ITS). Additional overviews with projects are available here on the ITS theme. Experts on themes also develop knowledge and standards in the Netherlands/EU; an overview can be found here.
The popular knowledge questions are:
What is the impact of AV’s on traffic streams? (e.g. local distribution of goods, supply to busses on major transport routes)
What is the social impact in a broader context? (social inclusion, economic, spatial, environment, PT-active nodes)
“According to (Anderson, et al. 2014) Self-propelled vehicles could considerably upsurge access and movement across a variety of populations presently incapable or not permitted to use conventional automobile. These include the incapacitated, older people, and children of age 16 or less. The most promising advantages would be personal independence, increased sociability, and access to vital services. Level 4 automation is expected to provide mobility and access at reduced cost when compared to the current system which provides mobility services for disabled for 14 to 18 percent of their budgets in the U.S. “nnFound on (p.42): Impact of Autonomous Vehicles on Urban Mobilitynn“This type of combined and improved transport systems come with many advantages like they would reduce the necessity for roads and parking; lessen congestion, air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions; would support the optimization of capitals used for transportation; and upsurge the living standards in the region. “nnFound on (p.39): Impact of Autonomous Vehicles on Urban Mobility nn“Considering that off-street parking represents 50 000 spots in the baseline case and that the most parking- intensive scenario (car sharing without public transport) would require 25 621 spots, on-street parking spots could be totally removed from the streets, whatever the scenario considered. This would allow the reallocation of 1 530 000 m2 to other public uses2, equivalent to almost 20% of the kerb-to-kerb street area in Lisbon or 210 football fields. This freed-up space could be dedicated to non-motorised transport modes, delivery bays, parklets or other recreational and commercial uses. “nnFound on (p.26): Urban Mobility Upgrade
“Cars driving from work to home can be designed smaller. Since 80% of these rides hold only one passenger. Lanes that are for AV use only can change their driving direction dynamic, to improve road capacity inbound or outbound traffic. Found in Dutch on (p.54): Verkenning technologische innovaties in de leefomgeving
The opinions are divided, depending on different assumptions about the future: nnProbable nothing imported in explained in the following article. :nn“Less likely, even if repeatedly cited by the scientific community, is the conversion of the entire vehicle fleet into vehicles that are on the road on a sharing basis or operated by public transport providers. There are currently no indications that private cars are losing any of their attraction.” nnScenario with individual Public Transportnn“One possible first step in individualizing public transport could be company buses, such as the so-called Google Bus, equipped with WiFi access and operating in and around San Francisco, which brings the company’s employees to work. In this case, a specific community gets together in a communal shuttle. Comparable concepts, albeit in manifold varieties, are conceivable and appear particularly attractive when based on autonomously driven vehicles. “nnFound on (p. 180 & 186):nnhttps://www.dropbox.com/s/i3wankjtjm4y1xc/Lenz%2C%20B.%20%26%20Fraedrich%2C%20E.%20%282016%29%20New%20Mobility%20Concepts%20and%20Autonomous%20Driving%20-%20The%20Potential%20for%20Change.pdf?dl=0nn
How long do we accept mixed situations and why do not we switch to separate infra for automated and non-automated?n
70%nnThe Effect of Autonomous Vehicles on TrafficnnChapter 16.4.2 nnThe models developed for traffic flow and capacity, assuming a given share of autonomous vehicles, show that capacity increases disproportionately highly as the share of autonomous vehicles increases. It should be noted that the shortening of the time gaps comes into effect as early as the first autonomous vehicle; the speed increase at high densities, however, will only be possible for purely autonomous traffic. The introduction of autonomous vehicles will succeed, in the opinion of the author, only in their ability to move safely in mixed traffic, as reserved transit areas would not be socially or economically acceptable, particularly with a low share of autonomous traffic. However, once a sufficient number of vehicles with autonomous capabilities are participating in traffic, it will be very beneficial to the transport efficiency to create reserved lanes for autonomous driving. The benefits of autonomous vehicles can be maximized by separation due to the nonlinear course of the capacity once non autonomous vehicles are added to autonomous traffic. In conjunction with specially dedicated lanes, the column speed could also be increased even when traffic demand is higher, which would lead to further significant capacity gains. This is not possible in mixed traffic, since even in trafficwith only a few human-driven vehicles, these would dictate the speed.n50%nnAutonomous Driving: Disruptive innovation that promises to change the automotive industry as we know itnnPage 7 reportnnLooking forward, we project “Level 3: limited self-driving automation” to be available by 2018-2020 with features such as highway chauffeur (automated driving on highways). Furthermore, we expect “Level 4: full self-driving automation” to be first offered for low speed situations by 2020-25 (e.g., in parking lots or low-speed areas) and eventually, including more complex operations to be offered by 2025-30 (e.g., city driving). Even with the introduction of new technologies, we do not expect global adoption of full self-driving automation with “door-to-door” capabilities across all vehicle segments before 2030-40.nn
Our annual knowledge report reports on this. It indicates to which knowledge questions answers and research have become available. In December, we will put the subjects and knowledge questions for research and trials into the coming year. Currently, the priorities in the list of knowledge questions (AR + C-ITS) are being worked on by, among others, IenW, RWS, Knowledge Institutions and Provinces, Cities, regions and pilot projects.
On this site you will also find an overview of relevant conferences and events and a collection of films and webinars via the menu. News and current developments are maintained by us through the library and twitter feed (#KARNL). Every week, a lot of knowledge and material is added to the collection, in all knowledge areas.