Welcome to the Knowledge Agenda on Automatic Driving, an initiative of the Ministry of Infrastructure and Water Management, Department of Transport and the RDW-Vehicle-approval, to provide an online overview of available and required knowledge in the field of automatic driving.

The overview is divided into a number of knowledge domains to map the various facets. In the library you will find an extensive collection of reports, papers and presentations, including summaries and background information. The library is used worldwide. The last report on Ethics was requested 674 times in a short time! About 30 pieces are downloaded every day.

The collection of knowledge documents is managed in Dropbox. With Dropbox you can search directly in the folders with documents and full text. Contact joop@veenis.net to gain access to the Dropbox.

Since 2015 we keep a list of knowledge questions (the required knowledge). Our collection of documents provides an answer to these knowledge questions. New questions are coming up because we are getting further and further into the implementation of “Connected Automated Driving”. The set of knowledge questions includes the topics automated driving and Smart Mobility (ITS). Additional overviews with projects are available here on the ITS theme. Experts on themes also develop knowledge and standards in the Netherlands/EU; an overview can be found here.

The popular knowledge questions are:

HUMAN-FACTORS-Behaviour

30% Intelligent Cruise Control Field Operational Test

 

As implied above, it is assumed that high levels of ACC penetration into the vehicle population will cause extended strings of ACC-equipped vehicles to form spontaneously simply due to the probabilities of traffic mixing— even in the absence of any peculiar natural tendencies toward aggregation of vehicles under ACC control. Thus, the dynamic stability of ACC strings and their impact on the natural inter lane weaving movements of other traffic will constitute real issues if ACC becomes a successful product. Observations from these tests have indicated that significant traffic impacts could arise from ACC strings. Firstly, considering simply the ACC system that was fielded here, (with its low deceleration authority and relatively sluggish re-acceleration response) a string of more than four of these vehicles will exhibit marginal stability levels, yieldingexaggerated responses when longitudinally disturbed from the forward end of the string. With strings of eight vehicles equipped with this ACC controller, significant disruptions in the smooth movement of a traffic stream would ensue following modest disturbances. Further to the string-stability issue, the authors of this report are not aware that this characteristic is being considered in the current design of automotive ACC products. Infact, an opposite approach has been apparent by which ACC control algorithms are “detuned” in some emerging products to render the controller unresponsive to brief misdetections by the range sensor. While string-stability problems would not manifest themselves as long as ACC-equipped vehicles are a rarity on the road, the issue will become highly important whenever the population density begins to precipitate long string formation on a regular basis. On the matter of cross-lane movements of other traffic, an important issue arises when an ACC string constitutes a sort of “moving wall” that impedes the natural weaving movement of other traffic. That is, due to ACC’s regularization of headway spacing,randomly extended gaps do not occur in the same manner as seen in manually-controlled traffic. Further, the ACC controller does not, by itself, respond to the “body language” of other drivers who maneuver alongside, in an adjacent lane, with the clear intention of weaving across into another destination lane. When headway time is in the vicinity of 1.0second, at highway speed, it was seen that other motorists were basically thwarted in their attempts to change lanes through an eight-car string that occupied the next-to-right-mostlane— occasionally exhibiting a fairly dramatic rate of penetrating the string in their apparent frustration to find a fully suitable gap in line with their exit/entrance transition plans. (Note that, upon entering a freeway, some more aggressive drivers seek to occupy the “fast,” left-most lane as soon as possible— thus experiencing some frustration when they remain “stuck” in the rightmost lane while searching for a suitable gap.) When ACC headway times were uniformly set to 1.5 seconds, other drivers appeared to penetrate the string with minimal difficulty.

“One central aspect of human-machine interaction is the perceived autonomy of the consumer [4, 29]. While the role of consumer autonomy has been addressed directly or indirectly by some studies, its criticality for consumer acceptance of automated technologies might not be fully captured in the contexts studied. Restricting or removing the autonomy of individuals could cause reactance, i.e., negative psychological and contrary behavioral responses of consumers as reactions to a perceived restriction of their personal freedoms [6, 44]. Automated driving systems could be perceived as a threat to drivers’ autonomy, and reactance could arise in terms of consumer boycott intentions or low adoption rates. Presently, it it is unclear if consumers are willing to accept a loss in control [56].”nnFound on (p.690): Consumer Perceptions of Automated Driving Technologies: An Examination of Use Cases and Branding Strategiesnn 

Our annual knowledge report reports on this. It indicates to which knowledge questions answers and research have become available. In December, we will put the subjects and knowledge questions for research and trials into the coming year. Currently, the priorities in the list of knowledge questions (AR + C-ITS) are being worked on by, among others, IenW, RWS, Knowledge Institutions and Provinces, Cities, regions and pilot projects.

On this site you will also find an overview of relevant conferences and events and a collection of films and webinars via the menu. News and current developments are maintained by us through the library and twitter feed (#KARNL). Every week, a lot of knowledge and material is added to the collection, in all knowledge areas.