Welcome to the Knowledge Agenda on Automatic Driving, an initiative of the Ministry of Infrastructure and Water Management, Department of Transport and the RDW-Vehicle-approval, to provide an online overview of available and required knowledge in the field of automatic driving.
The overview is divided into a number of knowledge domains to map the various facets. In the library you will find an extensive collection of reports, papers and presentations, including summaries and background information. The library is used worldwide. The last report on Ethics was requested 674 times in a short time! About 30 pieces are downloaded every day.
The collection of knowledge documents is managed in Dropbox. With Dropbox you can search directly in the folders with documents and full text. Contact firstname.lastname@example.org to gain access to the Dropbox.
Since 2015 we keep a list of knowledge questions (the required knowledge). Our collection of documents provides an answer to these knowledge questions. New questions are coming up because we are getting further and further into the implementation of “Connected Automated Driving”. The set of knowledge questions includes the topics automated driving and Smart Mobility (ITS). Additional overviews with projects are available here on the ITS theme. Experts on themes also develop knowledge and standards in the Netherlands/EU; an overview can be found here.
The popular knowledge questions are:
What is the impact of AV’s on traffic streams? (e.g. local distribution of goods, supply to busses on major transport routes)
What is the social impact in a broader context? (social inclusion, economic, spatial, environment, PT-active nodes)
“According to (Anderson, et al. 2014) Self-propelled vehicles could considerably upsurge access and movement across a variety of populations presently incapable or not permitted to use conventional automobile. These include the incapacitated, older people, and children of age 16 or less. The most promising advantages would be personal independence, increased sociability, and access to vital services. Level 4 automation is expected to provide mobility and access at reduced cost when compared to the current system which provides mobility services for disabled for 14 to 18 percent of their budgets in the U.S. “nnFound on (p.42): Impact of Autonomous Vehicles on Urban Mobilitynn“This type of combined and improved transport systems come with many advantages like they would reduce the necessity for roads and parking; lessen congestion, air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions; would support the optimization of capitals used for transportation; and upsurge the living standards in the region. “nnFound on (p.39): Impact of Autonomous Vehicles on Urban Mobility nn“Considering that off-street parking represents 50 000 spots in the baseline case and that the most parking- intensive scenario (car sharing without public transport) would require 25 621 spots, on-street parking spots could be totally removed from the streets, whatever the scenario considered. This would allow the reallocation of 1 530 000 m2 to other public uses2, equivalent to almost 20% of the kerb-to-kerb street area in Lisbon or 210 football fields. This freed-up space could be dedicated to non-motorised transport modes, delivery bays, parklets or other recreational and commercial uses. “nnFound on (p.26): Urban Mobility Upgrade
Indirect answer:nn“There have been numerous predicted monetary advantages linked to the adaptation of Autonomous Vehicles for daily commuting and travelling. First estimations state that self-driving cars can contribute up to $1.3 trillion in annual savings to the United States economy alone, and an expected sum of $5.6 trillion for global savings (Bartl 2015). “nnFound on (p.30): Impact of Autonomous Vehicles on Urban Mobility nn
The opinions are divided, depending on different assumptions about the future: nnProbable nothing imported in explained in the following article. :nn“Less likely, even if repeatedly cited by the scientific community, is the conversion of the entire vehicle fleet into vehicles that are on the road on a sharing basis or operated by public transport providers. There are currently no indications that private cars are losing any of their attraction.” nnScenario with individual Public Transportnn“One possible first step in individualizing public transport could be company buses, such as the so-called Google Bus, equipped with WiFi access and operating in and around San Francisco, which brings the company’s employees to work. In this case, a specific community gets together in a communal shuttle. Comparable concepts, albeit in manifold varieties, are conceivable and appear particularly attractive when based on autonomously driven vehicles. “nnFound on (p. 180 & 186):nnhttps://www.dropbox.com/s/i3wankjtjm4y1xc/Lenz%2C%20B.%20%26%20Fraedrich%2C%20E.%20%282016%29%20New%20Mobility%20Concepts%20and%20Autonomous%20Driving%20-%20The%20Potential%20for%20Change.pdf?dl=0nn
Voor AMOD (automated on demand):nn“Despite the largely independent operating characteristics of an AMOD system, there are several special conditions that warrant consideration. Firstly, operating personnel are required to safeguard operation. While it is not necessary for staff to oversee every individual steering, braking or drive command, but they must ensure safety of general operation within the established operating area (with its geographical limits) and specified parameters (e.g. speed or position). To achieve this, operation centers are established similar to those used for driverless trains or for logistics systems. Those centers are staffed with comparatively small numbers of personnel who monitor a large number of vehicles. The operating center is connected via radio to the individual vehicles and is capable of monitoring vehicle operating data, halting the vehicle in an emergency and communicating with passengers.” nn nnFound on (p.281):nnhttps://www.dropbox.com/s/3cr7xmonxcp6np2/Beiker%2C%20S.%20%282016%29%20Implementation%20of%20an%20Automated%20Mobility-on-Demand%20System.pdf?dl=0
Our annual knowledge report reports on this. It indicates to which knowledge questions answers and research have become available. In December, we will put the subjects and knowledge questions for research and trials into the coming year. Currently, the priorities in the list of knowledge questions (AR + C-ITS) are being worked on by, among others, IenW, RWS, Knowledge Institutions and Provinces, Cities, regions and pilot projects.
On this site you will also find an overview of relevant conferences and events and a collection of films and webinars via the menu. News and current developments are maintained by us through the library and twitter feed (#KARNL). Every week, a lot of knowledge and material is added to the collection, in all knowledge areas.