Benodigde kennis

De benodigde kennis wordt in samenwerking bepaald tijdens werkbijeenkomsten en Ronde Tafels. Dit leidt tot kennisvragen die worden beheerd door het Ministerie van Infrastructuur en Milieu (DGB).

De onderstaande vragen zijn al deels beantwoord. De antwoorden staan in de documenten uit de collectie en zijn hier verzameld. (stand per maart 2017) Voor meer vragen en antwoorden: zie het Kennisjaarverslag.

DEPLOYMENT-Samenwerking

Voor AMOD (automated on demand):

“Despite the largely independent operating characteristics of an AMOD system, there are several special conditions that warrant consideration. Firstly, operating personnel are required to safeguard operation. While it is not necessary for staff to oversee every individual steering, braking or drive command, but they must ensure safety of general operation within the established operating area (with its geographical limits) and specified parameters (e.g. speed or position). To achieve this, operation centers are established similar to those used for driverless trains or for logistics systems. Those centers are staffed with comparatively small numbers of personnel who monitor a large number of vehicles. The operating center is connected via radio to the individual vehicles and is capable of monitoring vehicle operating data, halting the vehicle in an emergency and communicating with passengers.”

 

Gevonden in (p.281):

https://www.dropbox.com/s/3cr7xmonxcp6np2/Beiker%2C%20S.%20%282016%29%20Implementation%20of%20an%20Automated%20Mobility-on-Demand%20System.pdf?dl=0

Key players:

 

  • Evolutionary: auto industry (OEMs)
  • Revolutionary: non-automotive technology companies (google, apple, etc)
  • Transformative: high-tech start-ups

 

Gevonden in (p. 206):

https://www.dropbox.com/s/91n2z7i19wfgzu6/Beiker%2C%20S.%20%282016%29%20Deployment%20Scenarios%20for%20Vehicles%20with%20Higher-Order%20Automation.pdf?dl=0
Note Joop: In het onderzoek van Surf STAD is voor Nederland door Bart Stoffels een mooi overzicht van stakeholders opgenomen.

https://www.dropbox.com/s/vvb3xj5m1d4ntkp/zelfrijdende%20stad_20%20maart_BS.pptx?dl=0

Innovatie bevorderende wetgeving ontwikkelen

  • Om (testen met) zelfrijdende auto’s op de openbare weg juridisch mogelijk te maken, wordt de bestaande AMvB (Besluit ontheffing verlening exceptionele transporten) voor ontheffingverlening door de RDW aangepast. Ik verwacht dit voorstel begin 2015 aan uw Kamer te sturen. Tot die tijd is testen op kleinschalig niveau mogelijk. De RDW verleent dan ontheffing en beoordeelt samen met de wegbeheerders de veiligheid. Hierbij kijken we uiteraard naar wat er in de rest van de wereld gebeurt op dit terrein, bijvoorbeeld naar de regelgeving die in Californië is ontwikkeld.
  • Ik streef daarnaast naar (inter)nationale regelgeving die marktintroductie van zelfrijdende voertuigtechnologie mogelijk maakt. Daarvoor nemen we het initiatief in internationale overleggen (EU en VN) en steunen we relevante voorstellen. Ter voorbereiding op het EU-voorzitterschap van Nederland inventariseer ik welke regelgeving/kaders ten behoeve van zelfrijdende auto’s op Europees niveau zouden moeten worden aangepast of waar een gezamenlijk kader wenselijk is. Uiteraard werk ik hierbij samen met andere landen.
  • Grootschalige testen in de praktijk faciliteren en kennisontwikkeling:
  • Ik geef na de zomer uitsluitsel over de voorwaarden en de locatie waaronder eerder genoemde testaanvraag kan worden uitgevoerd. Hierbij betrek ik eventuele andere aanvragen.
  • Deze test gebruiken we om in de praktijk een basisprocedure en voorwaardenset voor het structureel testen van automatische voertuigtechnologie te ontwikkelen. Doel is veilig testen en de kennis structureel borgen voor volgende initiatieven en projecten. Hierbij werk ik samen met kennisinstellingen, bedrijfsleven, de RDW en wegbeheerders
  • We gaan actief deelnemen aan internationale initiatieven. Zo nemen we deel aan het World Economic Forum waarbij met de auto-industrie en andere relevante partijen barrières en mogelijke oplossingsrichtingen voor de zelfrijdende auto in kaart worden gebracht. Te denken valt aan vraagstukken rondom data (eigendom, beheer, uitwisseling en beveiliging) en aansprakelijkheid. Op nationaal niveau zal ik ook onderzoeken laten uitvoeren naar deze onderwerpen, daarbij neem ik ook privacy en rijvaardigheidseisen mee.

Gevonden in: https://www.dropbox.com/s/ze5qzm20upsqlye/grootschalige-testen-van-zelfrijdende-auto-s-4.pdf?dl=0

 

Vehicle-to-X connectivity (V2X): Connectivity is an important element of the automated vehicles especially secure V2X communication requiring low latency. V2X technologies encompass the use of wireless technologies to achieve real-time two-way communication among vehicles (V2V) and between vehicles and infrastructure (V2I). The convergence of sensor-based solutions (current advanced driver assistance – ADAS) and V2X connectivity will promote automated driving. “

 

“Digital infrastructure: Digital infrastructure (for road automation) includes static and dynamic digital representations of the physical world with which the automated vehicle will interact to operate. Issues to address include: sourcing, processing, quality control and information transmission. “

Gevonden in: https://www.dropbox.com/s/4hor6dyblxeeinb/15CPB_AutonomousDriving.pdf?dl=0

Machtspositie (70%):

“Rental, taxi and ride sharing businesses will converge with the robo-taxi model. The market size will grow substantially as more people move from car-owners to ride-sharers. The younger generation and older adults will be early adopters of the new model. “

Gevonden in: https://www.dropbox.com/s/wozuc6h3xnh5fi1/Jiang%2C%20T.%2C%20et%20al.%20%282015%29%20Self-Driving%20Cars%20-%20Disruptive%20or%20Incremental.pdf?dl=0

 

Voor trucks (80%):

“This research showed that many different stakeholders are involved in the implementation of platooning. Moreover, it can be concluded that coop- eration between different competing industries and companies is impor- tant. Cooperation should lead to multibrand platooning and the possibility to platoon cross-border. “

Gevonden in: https://www.dropbox.com/s/wnl33x2zqwwe5jy/MScThesisBakermans2016.pdf?dl=0

Voor auto’s (80%):

“The trends in the automotive industry point towards an increased demand for strategic cooperation between partners as well

as technologies, as cooperation leads to an innovative combination of competencies and technologies, and can lead to the development of entirely new concepts developed in international strategic partnerships. Those companies which move on this now will gain important competitive advantage over their competitors”

Vision for the Dutch automotive sector

Hieronder een lijst met een aantal documenten die enkel betrekking hebben op het subdomein. Er zijn nog meer documenten gerelateerd aan dit subdomein maar deze zijn ook gelinkt aan andere subdomeinen. De volledige collectie beschikbare documenten in onze online bibliotheek (catalogus en dropbox) 

Titel/Title Auteur(s)/Author(s) Product van/Produced by Opdrachtgever product/Product Requested by Publicatiedatum/ Publication date
Diffusion of Automated Vehicles J.A.H (Jurgen) Nieuwenhuijsen Technisch Universiteit Delft IenM-projectgroep zelfrijdende voertuigen 9-8-2015
Op advies van de auto J. Timmer (Rathenau Instituut)
J. Smids (TU Eindhoven)
L. Kool (Rathenau Instituut)
A. Spahn (TU Eindhoven)
R. van Est (Rathenau Instituut)
Rathenau Instituut Opdrachtgever Rathenau Instituut 1-1-2013
Het vervoer van morgen begint vandaag Marie-Pauline van Voorst tot Voorst, Rene Hoogerwerf STT, Den Haag STT, Den Haag 1-7-2013
Towards Safe and Efficient Driving through Vehicle Automation:The Dutch Automated Vehicle Initiative (DAVI) Raymond Hoogendoorn, Bart van Arem, Riender Happee, Manuel Mazo Espinoza and Dimitrios Kotiadis TU-Delft, Connekt TU-Delft, Connekt 30/11/2013
KPMG’s Global Automotive Executive Survey 2015 Dieter Becker KPMG International KPMG International 1-1-2015
Motoring of the future . The Transport Committee is appointed by the House of Commons to examine the expenditure, administration, and policy of the Department for Transport and its Associate Public Bodies. Ordered by the House of Commons 3-6-2015
Verkenning technologische innovaties in de leefomgeving Mr. H.M. (Henry) Meijdam, voorzitter Raad voor de leefomgeving en infrastructuur Nederlandse regering en parlement 31/1/2015
Automated Vehicles: Strategic Overview Bishop Bishop Consulting Rijkswaterstaat 18/12/2014
FEHRL Scanning Tour Automated Roads Tom Alkim Rijkswaterstaat FEHRL 14/12/2014
Recent International Activity in Cooperative Vehicle–Highway Automation Systems S.E. Shladover Federal Highway Administration’s (FHWA’s) Exploratory Advanced Research Program the FHWA Turner– Fairbank Highway Research Program’s Office of Operations Research and Development 15/12/2012
Grootschalig testen van zelfrijdende auto’s mw. drs. M.H. Schultz van Haegen Ministerie IenM de Tweede Kamer der Staten-Generaal 16/6/2014
De auto wordt automobiel Anouk Vrouwe TNO TNO 11-11-2013
Driverless Cars Are Further Away Than You Think Will Knight BMW BMW 22/10/2013
Preparing a Nation for Autonomous Vehicles Kara M. Kockelman, Ph.D., Daniel Fagnant The University of Texas, Department of Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering. The Eno Center for Transportation is a neutral, non-partisan think-tank that promotes policy innovation and leads professional development in the transportation industry. 15/10/2013
Kennisagenda Automatisch Rijden Tom Alkim, Joop Veenis VPS- Connekt Rijkswaterstaat 14/4/2015
INTELLIGENT VEHICLES + INFRASTRUCTURE TO ADDRESS TRANSPORTATION PROBLEMS – A STRATEGIC APPROACH John Maddox,  Dr. Peter Sweatman, Dr. Jim Sayer University of Michigan Mobility Transformation Center Ann Arbor, Michigan
United States
University of Michigan Mobility Transformation Center Ann Arbor, Michigan
United States
6-10-2015
Autonomous Fahren, technische, rechtliche und gesellschaftliche aspecten Markus Maurer, j. Christian Gerdes, Barbara Lenz, Herman Winner TU Braunschweig, Institut für Regelungstechnik, Deutschland, Stanford University, Stanford, USA Daimer Benz Stiftung 21/7/2015
Future of automated Vehicles Build Environment Workshop Steven E. Underwood, Ph.D. Graham Institute, TRB, AUVSI, and SAE Survey Results Graham Institute for Sustainability University of Michigan 29/07/2015
Truck-Platooning-Driving-the-future-of-Transportation Robbert Janssen, Han Zwijnenberg, Iris Blankers, Janiek de Kruijff TNO TNO 2-1-2015
AUVSI-TRB-Symposium2015-Presentaties-Deployment diverse Joop Veenis IenM-Rijkswaterstaat 31/07/2015
Urban Mobility Upgrade  Led by the ITF, work is carried
out in a collaborative fashion in working groups consisting of CPB
member companies, external experts and ITF researchers
International Transport Forum (ITF) International Transport Forum’s Corporate Partnership Board (CPB) 31/7/2015
Mini-Symposium-Steven-Shladover-Delft Steven Shladover California PATH Program Manager IenM-projectgroep zelfrijdende voertuigen 11//11/2015
European Truck Platooning Challenge 2016 People involved with the EC Truck Platooning Challenge where interviewed for this storybook The EU Truck Platooning Challenge 2016 is an initiative of the Dutch Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment, managed by Rijkswaterstaat – in the framework of the EU Presidency 2016. Melanie Schultz van Haegen, Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment 5-9-2016
Overview of pilots worldwide-2016 Compilation overview by Tom Alkim IenM-projectgroep zelfrijdende voertuigen IenM-projectgroep zelfrijdende voertuigen 08-03-2017
Overview of Roadmaps for Automated Vehicles worldwide Compilation overview by Tom Alkim IenM-projectgroep zelfrijdende voertuigen IenM-projectgroep zelfrijdende voertuigen 08-03-2017
Tem de robotauto – De zelfsturende auto voor publieke doelen Jelte Timmer, Linda Kool Rathenau Instituut Rathenau Instituut 02-10-2014
European Roadmap Smart Systems for Automated Driving Dr. Jadranka Dokic, Dr. Beate Müller, Dr. Gereon Meyer VDI-IT European Technology Platform on Smart Systems Integration 01-04-2015
Self-Driving Cars, The Next Revolution Gary Silburg, Richard Wallace KPMG LLP and the Center for Automotive Research (CAR) KPMG LLP and the Center for Automotive Research (CAR) ??/??/2012
Connected and Autonomous Vehicles – The UK Economic Opportunity John Leech, Mike Hawes KPMG LLP KPMG LLP ??/03/2015
Autonomous Cars – Self-Driving the New Auto Industry Paradigm Ravi Shanker, Adam Jonas, Scott Devitt, Katy Huberty, Simon Flannery, William Greene et al. Morgan Stanley LLC Morgan Stanley LLC 06-11-2013
Vision for the Dutch automotive sector PPS Automotive Federatie Holland Automotive PPS Automotive ??/05/2006
Roadmap between automotive industry and infrastructure organisations on initial deployment of Cooperative ITS Amsterdam Group Amsterdam Group C2C-CC, ASECAP, CEDR, POLIS 07-06-2013
On the road toward the autonomous truck: Opportunities for OEMs and suppliers Sebastian Gundermann, Norbert Dressler, Marc Winterhoff, Wilfried Aulbur, Wolfgang Bernhart Roland Berger Strategy Consultants Roland Berger Strategy Consultants ??/01/2015
Autonomous Driving—Political, Legal, Social, and Sustainability Dimensions Miranda A. Schreurs and Sibyl D. Steuwer Environmental Policy Research Centre (FFU), Freie Universität Berlin Springer Berlin Heidelberg 22/05/2016
New Mobility Concepts and Autonomous Driving: The Potential for Change Barbara Lenz , Eva Fraedrich German Aerospace Center (DLR), Institute of Transport Research Springer Berlin Heidelberg 22/05/2016
Deployment Scenarios for Vehicles with Higher-Order Automation Sven Beiker Stanford University Springer Berlin Heidelberg 22/05/2016
Autonomous Driving and Urban Land Use Dirk Heinrichs German Aerospace Centre (DLR), Institute of Transport Research Springer Berlin Heidelberg 22/05/2016
Implementation of an Automated Mobility-on-Demand System Sven Beiker Stanford University Springer Berlin Heidelberg 22/05/2016
Autonomous Vehicles and Autonomous Driving in Freight Transport Heike Flämig Technische Universität Hamburg-Harburg TUHH, Institute for Transport
Planning and Logistics
Springer Berlin Heidelberg 22/05/2016
Autonomous Mobility-on-Demand Systems for Future Urban Mobility Marco Pavone Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Stanford University Springer Berlin Heidelberg 22/05/2016
Automated and Autonomous Driving: Regulation under uncertainty Dr Bryant Walker Smith, Joakim Svensson International Transport Forum at OECD International Transport Forum’s Corporate Partnership Board (CPB) 05-07-2015
The Release of Autonomous Vehicles Walther Wachenfeld, Hermann Winner Institute of Automotive Engineering, Technische Universität Darmstadt Springer Berlin Heidelberg 22/05/2016
Preparing a Nation for Autonomous Vehicles: Opportunities, Barriers and Policy Recommendations Daniel J. Fagnant, Kara Kockelman Eno Center for Transportation Eno Center for Transportation ??/10/2013
Impact of Autonomous Vehicles on Urban Mobility Mohammed Azmat WU Vienna University of Economics and Business WU Vienna University of Economics and Business 29/07/2015
Self-Driving Cars: Disruptive or Incremental? Tao Jiang, Srdjan Petrovic, Uma Ayyer, Anand Tolani, Sajid Husain Sutardja Center for Entrepreneurship & Technology University of California, Berkeley Technology University of California 01-06-2015
The Road Ahead: The Emerging Policy Debates for IT in Vehicles Daniel Castro Information Technology & Innovation Foundation Information Technology & Innovation Foundation ??/04/2013
Truck Platooning – Enablers, Barriers, Potential and Impact B.A. (Bon) Bakermans Delft University of Technology TU Delft 29/08/2016
Climbing Mount Next: The Effects of Autonomous Vehicles on Society David Levinson Transportation, Department of Civil, Environmental, and Geo-Engineering, University of Minnesota Minnesota Journal of Law Science and Technology ??/??/2015
Ready or Waiting Todd Litman Traffic Technology International Traffic Technology International ??/01/2014
Managing Autonomous Transportation Demand Bryant Walker Smith CIS, the center for Internet and Society University of South Carolina 14/11/2012
How Governments Can Promote Automated Driving Bryant Walker Smith CIS, the center for Internet and Society University of South Carolina 17/3/2016
Societal Risk Constellations for Autonomous Driving. Analysis, Historical Context and Assessment Armin Grunwald Institute for Technology Assessment and Systems Analysis (ITAS), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology Springer Berlin Heidelberg 22/05/2016
Consumer Perceptions of Automated Driving Technologies: An Examination of Use Cases and Branding Strategies David M. Woisetschläger Institute of Automotive Management and Industrial Production, Technische Universität Braunschweig Springer Berlin Heidelberg 22/05/2016